بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Doctor Nasr Ali Shaykh says in his book “The Belief of Ahlis Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah regarding the noble companions”:
When the 4th khaleefah Ali was martyred due to being killed by one of the khawarij (Abdur Rahmaan ibn Amr Al-Muraadi on the 17th night of Ramadan 40 yrs after the hijra of the Prophet) the pledge was then given to his son Hasan after him. For 7 months (some say 8 months while others say 6 months) he endured being khaleefah over the Hijaz, Yemen, Iraq, and Khuraasan. Thus his succession, its time period is included in the time period of the rightly guided successors in reality. This is because the time period (of the succession of Hasan) completes the time period of the rightly guided successors in which the Prophet (sallahu alayhi wa salaam) informed us that its time period would be 30 yrs then monarchies.
At-Tirmidhi narrated (in his sunan) with a chain that ends at Safinah in which he said: The Messenger of Allah said: “The succession in my nation will be for 30 yrs and after that monarchies.”
Likewise the hadith of Safinah is related by Imaam Ahmad (in his musnad) with the wording “The succession is for 30 yrs then there will be monarchies to succeed that.”
Also related by Abu Dawud (in his sunan) with the wording: “The succession of prophethood is 30 yrs then Allah will give to whomever He wills sovereignty.”
So there wasn’t a successor during the 30 yrs after the passing of the Prophet (sallahu alayhi wa salaam) except the four successor Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthmaan, and Ali along with the days of Hasan. Consequently a number of scholars from the people of knowledge concluded in their explanations to the Prophet’s statement “the succession in my nation is 30 yrs” that the months in which Hasan ibn Ali assumed authority after the death of his father are in fact included in the time period of the succession of the Prophet and finalized it.
Abu Bakr ibn al Arabi said: ” A truthful promise was accomplished regarding the Prophet’s statement: “The succession in my nation is 30 yrs then monarchies.” So this period consisted of Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthmaan, Ali and the 8 months that were exclusively for Hasan without the increase or decrease of a day.”
Al-Qaadhi Iyyadh said: ” So there wasn’t a successor during the 30 yrs except the 4 rightly guided successions and the months of Hasan ibn Ali…
Furthermore he said: ” What’s intended by the succession is 30 yrs, is succession of the prophet. Thus it was explain in accordance to this in other (authentic) narrations.
Al Haafith ibn Kathir said: “The proof that Hasan is one of the rightly guided successors is the hadith that we reported as evidence from Safinah in which the Messenger said: “The succession after me is 30 yrs then monarchies.”
Thus the 30 yrs was completed with the succession of Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib.”
In Addition the statements in the explanation of At-Tahawiyyah: “The succession of Abu Bakr was 2 yrs and 3 months. The succession of Umar was 10 yrs and 6 months. The succession of Uthmaan was 12 yrs. The succession of Ali was 4 yrs and 9 months, and lastly, the succession of Hasan which was 6 months.”
Translated by Najeeb ibn Yusuf Al Anjelesi