Monthly Archives: March 2016

Allah’s Two Hands

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

From the principles pertaining to Allah’s perfect attributes that safeguard the creed of the Muslim is: الإثبات ما أثبت الله لنفسه و الإثبات ما أثبت له رسوله -صلّى الله عليه و سلّم– “Affirming whatsoever Allah affirms for Himself and affirming for Him whatsoever the Messenger -sallahu alayhi wa salaam- affirmed for Him.”

This principle has been taught repeatedly by the prominent scholars of Islam past and present that applies to all qualities and attributes of Allah. It necessitates belief in all qualities and attributes attributed to Him and negates denial of them. In light of this it is incumbent upon all Muslims to affirm that Allah has two Hands, as Allah affirms this for Himself throughout the Quran, likewise the Messenger -sallahu alayhi wa salaam- has affirmed this in multiple narrations authentically attributed to him. Allah says:

تبارك الذي بيده الملك و هو على كل شيءٍ قدير

Blessed is He in whose Hand is the dominion; and He is capable of doing anything.” [Al-Mulk: 1]

و قالت اليهود يد الله مغلولة غلت أيديهم و لعنوا بما قالوا بل يداه مبسوطتان ينفق كيف يشاء

And the Jews said: Allah’s Hands are tied. (In reality) their hands are tied and cursed are they for what they said. On the contrary Allah’s Hands are outstretched spending however He wills...” [Al-Maidah: 64]

قل إن الفضل بيد الله يؤتيه من يشاء

…Say: Surely all bounty is in Allah’s Hand, He gives to whomever He wills…” [Ali-Imran: 73]

و ما قدروا الله حق قدره و الأرض جميعا قبضته يوم القيامة و السماوات مطويات بيمينه سبحانه و تعالى عما يشركون

They did not make a just estimate of Allah such as is due to Him, and the entire Earth will be within His grasped on the day of resurrection. The heavens will be rolled (or folded) in His right Hand. Glorified is He, and exalted is He from what they associate as partners with Him.” [Az-Zamar: 67]

The Messenger -sallahu alayhi wa salaam said: “The hands are three; so the highest Hand is Allah (‘s hand), the hand of the giver which is after His hand, and the low hand of the beggar…” Collected by Abu Dawud, upon the authority of Malik ibn Nadhlah.

He -sallahu alayhi wa salaam- also said: “Allah will seize the Earth on the day of resurrection and the sky will be folded in His right Hand, then He will say, I am the King where are the monarchs of the Earth?” Collected by Al Bukhari, upon the authority of Abu Huraira.

Furthermore he -sallahu alayhi wa salaam- said: Allah’s right Hand is full and does not decrease due to continuous spending throughout the night and day. Have you seen what He spends since creating the heavens and earth? Surely there is no decrease in what is in His right Hand, and His throne is above the water (which is above the 7 heavens). In His other Hand is the bounty or power…” Collected by both Al Bukhari and Muslim, upon the authority of Abu Huraira.

At this point it’s important to mention a principle in qawaa’id -ul- fiqh that being:

الأصل في الكلام الحقيقة

“The foundation with regards to speech is its true reality and or meaning.”

This principles implies that all speech found in the Quran or the Sunnah is to be taken and understood on its apparent meaning and no interpretation that renders its apparent meaning void is accepted (unless there is another text to support it). It is imperative to uphold this principle with regards to Allah’s qualities. Sheikh Salih Al Fawzan states, “Allah -glorified and exalted is He- affirms names and attributes for Himself and likewise His messenger -sallahu alayhi wa salaam-. Thus negating them (in totality) or a portion of them is to negate what Allah and His Messenger have affirmed, and this (in reality) is opposing Allah and His Messenger -sallahu alayhi wa salaam.(1) 

Moreover the affirming of these attributes upon their apparent meaning does not necessitate a resemblance between Allah and His creation. Sheikh Al Fawzan states: What is well known is that Allah’s names and attributes are specific to Him and fitting for Him, whereas the names and attributes of the creation are specific to them and fitting for them. Thus the sharing of names and general meanings does not entail any sharing with regards to (their) true reality.”(2) Thus the hand of man is not like Allah’s Hand, the resemblance is only in the name (the word “hand”) and general meaning not in the specific reality as Allah says:

ليس كمثله شيء و هو السميع البصير

There is nothing like Him, and He is The All Hearing, The All Seeing.” [Ash-Shura: 11]

 Unfortunately there are misguided groups that falsely interpret the meanings of Allah’s attributes in defiance to the principle “The foundation with regards to speech is its true and apparent meaning.” As groups like the Asharis and Maturidis along with their modern day counterparts from the Tablighis, Ahbashis, and others claim that the intent of Allah’s Hand is Ability. This is incorrect and deemed to be deviation with regards to Allah’s names and attributes, and it is inventing a lie on Allah. The Exalted says: 

قال يا إبليس ما منعك أن تسجد لما خلقت بيديّ

(Allah) said: O Iblis! What prevents you from prostrating to one (Adam) whom I created with both My Hands?” [Sad: 75] 

Sheikh Ali Al Faqeehi states, “If Allah meant by His statement –I created with both My Hands– ability, then there would not be any virtue of Adam over Iblis in that regard. Allah wanted Iblis to see the virtue of Adam over him by creating Adam with both His Hands and not him. If He had created Iblis with both His Hands as He did Adam, there would be no preference over Iblis from that perspective and Iblis would have said you created me with both Your Hands as You have created Adam with both of them. So when Allah wanted to give preference over Iblis by way of that He said rebuking him due to his arrogance with regards to Adam, “prostrate to him!” –What prevents you from prostrating to one (Adam) whom I created with both My Hands, are you too proud…– This proves that ability is not the intent of the verse, as Allah created everything with His ability, (here) He only intends the affirmation of Two Hands and that Iblis did not share (in the virtue) of being created by them, unlike Adam.”(3)    

Therefore made binding upon the Muslim is to believe that Allah has Two Hands that are real, how they look only Allah knows, but we believe He has Hands that do not resemble the hands of His creation in any way whatsoever. This is the creed of Ahlus Sunnah pertaining to the attributes of Allah.

Written by Najeeb Al Anjelesi. 


1: عقيدة التوحيد

2: عقيدة التوحيد

3: كتاب التوحيد لابن منده بتعليقات الشيخ علي بن ناصر الفقيهي

Comments Off on Allah’s Two Hands

Filed under Aqeedah

Embryonic Development: Sheikh Abdul Muhsin Al Abbad

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Al Bukhari and Muslim collected a narration upon the authority of Abdullah ibn Masud wherin the Prophet-sallahu alayhi wa salaam- said:

“Surely the creation of each one of you is gathered in the wombs of his mother for forty days as a drop (of fluids). Subsequent to that he becomes a clot of blood for the same duration, and subsequent to that he becomes a chewed like bite sized morsel of flesh. Afterwards Allah sends an angel in order to breath the soul into it (the morsel of flesh) and commanded him with four matters, that being to write the (embryos) provisions, lifespan, actions, and (if it is to be) wretched or prosperous. I swear by Allah to whom which there is no deity in truth besides Him, indeed one of you may perform the actions of the people of paradise until there is nothing but an arms length between him and it, then that which is written overtakes him til he performs the actions of the people of the fire and as a result enters it. Likewise one of you may perform the actions of the people of the fire until there is nothing but an arms length between him and it, then that which is written overtakes him til he performs the actions of the people of paradise and as a result he enters it.”

Sheikh Abdul Muhsin Al Abbad elucidates the first part of the narration pertaining to embryonic development, he states:

Mentioned in this narration are the varying phases of man. The first is sperm which is a small amount of fluids. The second is a clot which is thick coagulated blood. The third is an embryo and it is a small amount of flesh the size of that which a diner chews (of food; meaning its bite sized). Allah mentions these three (phases) in His statement:

يأيُّها الناس إنْ كنْتم في ريبٍ من البعث فإنّا خلقناكم من ترابٍ ثمَّ من نطفةٍ ثمَّ من علقةٍ ثمَّ من مضغةٍ مخلقةٍ و غيرِ مخلَّقةٍ

“O’ Mankind! If you are in doubt about the resurrection, then certainly We created you from dust (Adam), then (in stages while in the womb) from fluids (sexual discharge), then from coagulated blood, then from a morsel of flesh shaped and unshaped…” [Al Hajj: 5]

The meaning of -shaped and unshaped- formed and unformed. In surah al muminoon verses 12-14 there’s a further (and much more replete) clarification with regards to the phases of man’s creation. Allah says: 

و لقد خلقْنا الإنسانَ من سلالةٍ من طين ٠ ثمَّ جعلْناه نطفةً في قرارٍ مكين ٠ ثمَّ خلقْنا النطفة علقةً فخلقنا العلقة مضغةً فخلقنا المضغة عظامًا فكسونا العظام لحمًا ثمّ أنشأناه خلقًا ءَاخر فتبارك الله أحسن الخالقين

“Indeed We created man from a (certain) strain of clay * Thereafter We made him a fluid (of sexual discharge, then placed) in a strong receptacle * Then We made the fluids into a clot, then We made the clot into a morsel of flesh, then We made the flesh out of the flesh bones, and then clothed the bones with flesh, and then We produce another (from it) another creation, so blessed is Allah the best of creators.”  

Also in the narration is what is subsequent to the three phases, which in total is 120 days, it being the breathing of the soul into the flesh, at this point he is alive and before that he was dead (inanimate). It is mentioned in the noble Quran that man has two lives and two deaths. Allah says:

قالوا ربنا أمتّنا اثنتين و أحيتنا اثنتين

“They will say; “Our Lord! You have caused us to die twice and have given us life twice…” [Al-Ghafir: 11]

The first death is before the blowing of the soul (the first 120 days in the womb), and the first life is from the blowing of the soul til the end of his lifespan (on earth). The second death is after his death til he is resurrected. This does not negate life in Al Barzakh (life in the grave that is a partition between the worldly life and resurrection) that which is firmly proven in the book and the sunnah. The second life is after resurrection and it is the eternal life without end. These varying conditions of man’s life are explained by Allah were He says:

و هو الذي أحياكم ثمّ يميتكم ثمّ يُحيكم إنَّ الإنسان لكَفورٌ

“He has given you life, then will cause you to die, and again will give you life. Indeed man is ungrateful.” [Al Hajj: 66] 

كيف تكفرون بالله و كنتم أمواتًا فأحياكم ثمَّ يميتكم ثمَّ يُحْييكم ثمَّ إليه ترجعون

“How can you disbelieve in Allah when you were dead and He gave you life, then you will die (again), and (again) He will grant you life and then to Him you will return.” [Al-Baqara: 28]

Consequently if he is born after the blowing of the soul (into the embryo) and then dies the legislative rulings concerning childbirth are applied. That being the washing of the child and praying over it, the conclusion of iddah, the woman being deemed mother of a child, and the mother being (in a state of) post natal (rulings pertaining to this state being applicable). But if there is a miscarriage before this then these rulings are not applicable (a miscarriage before 120 days is not viewed the same way as one after 120 days thus the rulings differ).

Translated by Najeeb Al Anjelesi

Source:  فتح القوي المتين في شرح الأربعين و تتمة الخمسين

  

Comments Off on Embryonic Development: Sheikh Abdul Muhsin Al Abbad

Filed under Uncategorized

Being Excused Due To Ignorance: Sheikh Rabee Ibn Hadi

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Q: What is the (Islamic) precept pertaining to being excused due to ignorance?

A: The ignorant is he to whom which the proofs have not reached. He is either new to Islam and abandons an action from Islam’s pillars due to not learning Islam. For instance if a person accepts Islam and does not believe in the obligation of zaykat, hajj, etc due to neither the textual evidence reaching him nor any Muslim teaching him, this individual is excused due to ignorance.

Similarly a person in a country that is distant from knowledge, Islam, worship, tawheed, etc. He lives deep in the jungles like the jungles in the middle of Africa, or in countries passed India, countries of ignorance and misguidance. This person is also excused due to ignorance in certain affairs that have not reached him, so if he falls short therein we do not pass the judgement of disbelief, on the contrary we teach and make matters clear to him. We say to him, how come you don’t pay zaykah? Why don’t you perform the pilgrimage? If he says it’s not binding upon me to do, we then say, on the contrary, it is binding upon you to do and the proof is this. This (being his condition) before the proofs reached him, he came ignorant and is excused as a result of it.

As for he who lives in an Islamic country amidst the people of knowledge, religion, and good he is not excused. That is because in most cases he shuns learning and does not actually want the truth. The people of  the interval (of time between prophets), the mentally challenged, the young, and those who the proofs have not reached are all excused and will be tested on the day of resurrection. We do not consider them to be disbelievers and Allah will not enter them into the Fire without (first) sending a messenger to them in order to test them. He will say to them, “enter the Fire!” So whomsoever is prepared to enter it will be safe and secure, but whoever refuses and rejects will enter it.

The people of the interval will come and say , no herald came to us. The insane person will come and say I was tossed on the streets and the children would shove me while in (varying) pathways and I didn’t comprehend. I did not have intellect. Our Lord will not burden this type. The child is without sound intellect as well and has not reached the age of puberty. These individuals will be tested on the day of resurrection. Whoever dies before maturity will be tested. If he is prepared to enter the Fire being obedient to (the command) of this messenger (sent by Allah), he will be safe and secure. However he who refuses to enter the Fire this is disbelief and denial (on that day), consequently he will enter the Fire.

The textual evidence for this is what is reported by imam Ahmad from the chain of Qatadah, from Ahnaf ibn Qais upon the authority of Al-Aswad ibn Saree where the Prophet -sallahu alayhi wa salaam- said, “Four will be excused on the day of resurrection. The deaf man who doesn’t hear anything, the insane man, the elderly (senile) man, and the man who died during the interval (between Esa and Muhammad -sallahu alayhi wa salaam-). As for the deaf man he will say, my Lord indeed Islam came but I didn’t hear a thing. As for the insane he will say, my Lord Islam came yet the children would fling filth at me. The elderly man will say, my Lord Islam came but I didn’t comprehend anything. Lastly the man who died during the interval, he will say, my Lord no messenger of yours came to me. Thus a covenant will be made (in which they will agree) to obey Allah and (as a result) He will send a messenger to them who will tell them to enter the Fire. I swear by Him in whose hands is the soul of Muhammad, if they enter the Fire it will be for them cool and tranquil.   

Ahmad also reports (another chain from Muadh ibn Hisham that leads back to) Abu Huraira narrating similar, except that the ending differs. “So whoever enters it, it will be for them cool and tranquil, and whoever does not enter it will be dragged therein.

The conclusion drawn is that the more probable interpretation with Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah is that the ignoramus is excused until the proof is presented to him. So the people of the interval are excused and will not enter the Fire unless the proof is established (against them) in the next life. To reiterate; the soundest with Ahlus Sunnah is that anyone that commits an action deemed to be disbelief is not considered a disbeliever until the proof is presented to him, as some companions fell into the consumption of intoxicants, they drunk it and considered it to be lawful and this is disbelief. As a result the companions like Umar, Ali, Uthman and others assembled. They called for the summoning of them and said (after establishing the proofs concerning the consumption of intoxicants) if they acknowledge the prohibition of intoxicants then upon them is the Islamic legal punishment (for the infraction), but if they declare it lawful then the capital punishment for apostasy is applied. So they repented and the legal punishment was implemented.

Translated by Najeeb Ibn Yusuf Al Anjelesi

Source: فتاوى فضيلة الشيخ العلامة ربيع بن هادي عمير المدخلي   

Comments Off on Being Excused Due To Ignorance: Sheikh Rabee Ibn Hadi

Filed under Uncategorized

When Committing Major Polytheism Is Excused: Sheikh Rabee Ibn Hadi

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Q: Are people, living in some Muslim countries, who commit major polytheism excused due to ignorance? Or is it that the proofs have been established against them due to the circulation of Islamic knowledge based books, tapes, and educational gatherings that are broadcast (on TV, radio, satellite, etc) wherein tawheed is clearly explained to them?

A: Whomever you know that comprehends and the proofs have been presented to him then (if he still persists upon polytheism while claiming Islam) you consider him to be out the fold of Islam, however many people do not understand. Many have not even heard (the proofs) specifically foreigners (non Arabs). In this time a multitude of Arabs are on the same level as the foreigner as they read the Quran and hear the narrations yet they do not comprehend them.

So patience is necessary alongside the lack of being hasty with passing judgement against the people. Indeed I’ve already answered this question before you asked it. I also cited the verses that indicate the necessity of the misguided person having comprehension in that he understands the proofs that are with you. Surely there may be with him disbelief and misguidance, however do not be hasty in passing the judgement of him being outside the fold of Islam until you present the evidence. We previously mentioned the position of Ibn Taymiyyah in this regard and the evidence (supporting this position).

Translated by Najeeb Ibn Yusuf Al Anjelesi

Source: فتاوى فضيلة الشيخ العلامة ربيع بن هادي عمير المدخلي

     

Comments Off on When Committing Major Polytheism Is Excused: Sheikh Rabee Ibn Hadi

Filed under Uncategorized

The Meaning Of The Name Ath-Thahir “الظاهر”

بسم لله الرحمن الرحيم

Sheikh Ali Al Faqeehi states, Az-Zujaaj mentions that it has two meanings. So if you were to take it on its apparent it would imply that He (Allah) is manifest by why of the intellect due to the proofs and evidence of His existence and His oneness. However if you take its meaning from the usage of the Arab (when they say), “So and So ascended (the verb used is ظهَرَ) above the roof; (meaning) whenever he is elevated. Thus it is from being elevated and Allah The Exalted is above everything. 

In conclusion, from Allah’s names is Ath-Thahir meaning it is He who has risen over (ascended) everything and is above everything. [كتاب التوحيد لابن منده مع تعليقات الشيخ الفقيهي]

Ibn-ul-Qayyum said, His (Allah) state of being elevated (ظاهِرِيته) means the state of being above everything. [طريق الهجرتين]

This interpretation that we find repeated by the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah is derived directly from the statement of the Messenger -sallahu alayhi wa salaam- when, while supplicating, he said “O Allah, you are Al-Awwal there is nothing before you, and You are Al-Akhir and there is nothing after you, You are Ath-Thahir and there is nothing above you, and You are Al-Batin and there is nothing closer than you…” Collected by Muslim.

In this supplication the Prophet -sallahu alayhi wa salaam- explained the intent and meanings of these names making it binding upon all to affirm.

Compiled by Najeeb ibn Yusuf Al Anjelesi  

 

 

 

Comments Off on The Meaning Of The Name Ath-Thahir “الظاهر”

Filed under Aqeedah